Debate Part One

Blog Chat Quiz / Debate – { PART ONE }

Dear Friends,

The transcript below has been extracted from the blog of H.E. Tsem Rinpoche.

On July 25th, 2014. H.E. Tsem Rinpoche held an impromptu debate/quiz session in the blog-chat section of the blog. Many were fortunate enough to participate in session, but for those who missed out, I have posted the entire session below for you to slowly read and digest.

Since wordpress can only handly 6500 words per post. I had to break down the entire session to 4 posts. I hope you enjoy learning from session.

With folded hands,
Jim Yeh


Tsem Rinpoche: Dear everyone, What part of Tibet was Tsongkapa from? What place exactly was he born?
25 Jul 14, 12:02 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Tsongkha, Amdo
25 Jul 14, 12:02 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: Tsongkhapa was from a place called Tsongkha in East Tibet
25 Jul 14, 12:02 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: It is near Kumbum Monastery, so in today’s world, the place is near Xining, the capital of Qinghai Province in China
25 Jul 14, 12:03 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: What Monastery did Tsongkapa enter first and at what age?
25 Jul 14, 12:03 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Very good Pastors David, Seng Piow and Moh Mei. Pastor Moh Mei!!! You knew???!!!
25 Jul 14, 12:04 PM

Pastor David Lai: Drikung kagyu monastery
25 Jul 14, 12:04 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: interesting Pastor David. Are you sure?
25 Jul 14, 12:04 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: The monastery yes, the age I don’t know
25 Jul 14, 12:04 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: Drikung Monastery, I think age 16
25 Jul 14, 12:05 PM

Pastor Niral: Aged 16
25 Jul 14, 12:05 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: Lama Tsongkhapa received novice monk vows at age 7, year 1363
25 Jul 14, 12:05 PM

Pastor David Lai: Erm… yay pastor jean ai
25 Jul 14, 12:05 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Do you all think Tsongkapa started out so late at 16?? Are you sure?
25 Jul 14, 12:07 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Name me 10 things Tsongkapa and Arya Nagarjuna have in common?
25 Jul 14, 12:07 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Where is the rest of my USA team? How come so silent?
25 Jul 14, 12:08 PM

Joy: At the age of seven, Tsongkhapa received novice vows from Chojey Dondrub-rinchen and the ordination name Lozang-dragpa. He continued to study in Amdo with this lama until he was sixteen, at which time he went to U-tsang (dBus-gtsang, Central Tibet) to study further.
25 Jul 14, 12:08 PM

Cliff: Namgyel Monastery in his 20s?
25 Jul 14, 12:09 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Correct Joy…he started at a very young and tender age
25 Jul 14, 12:09 PM

Pastor David Lai: They were both enlightened masters
25 Jul 14, 12:09 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Cliff???? If it was too old to start at 16, why would you up his age to 20’s?????????
25 Jul 14, 12:09 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: @Joy, which monastery?
25 Jul 14, 12:10 PM

Pastor David Lai: They were both Mahayanists
25 Jul 14, 12:10 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: He started at 7…..
25 Jul 14, 12:10 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: They both teach the Middle Way
25 Jul 14, 12:10 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: I’m Googling but can’t find it
25 Jul 14, 12:10 PM

Pastor David Lai: They both practiced Tantra – Guhyasamaja….
25 Jul 14, 12:10 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Moh Mei and David, do put all ten similarities on one post….easier to read. I repeat: What are ten similarities between Nagarjuna and Tsongkapa?
25 Jul 14, 12:11 PM

Pastor Niral: 1. Both are Mahayana Buddhists
25 Jul 14, 12:11 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: @Joy, what monastery? I can’t find a reference to it here: http://www.lama-tsongkhapa.com/origin/
25 Jul 14, 12:13 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Shachong Monastery (Jakhyung Shedrubling)
25 Jul 14, 12:13 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Similarities between Ary Nagarjuna & Lord Tsongkapa: 1. Both predicted by Lord Buddha. 2. Both gained high attainments via Guhyasamaja’s incredible tantric path. 3. Both were the highest scholars in their land during their lifetime. 4. Both conformed to the monastic system of discipline and practice (vinaya-holding pure monk vows) 5. Both only accepted a practice after vigorous debate, analysis and self-practice. 6. Both had thousands of disciples and many erudite masters arose from studying with them. 7. Both ordained many into monkhood as they found this to be perfect in practicing. 8. Both believed in not revealing tantra practice to the general public. 9. Both studied emptiness/practiced emptiness and wrote extensively on it in order to clear the doubts for many practitioners. Because of their extensive teachings and writing on emptiness, many were liberated from rebirth. 10. Both attained full enlightenment within their lifetime. Tsongkapa in bardo. Same.
25 Jul 14, 12:17 PM

Pastor David Lai: Hehe mine was this…. couldn’t figure the last one – Thank you rinpoche1. They are both enlightened masters 2. Both are Mahayanists. 3. Both practiced Tantra- Guhyasamaja 4. Both received teachings from Manjushri 5. Both displayed miracles due to their attainments 6. Both masters are depicted with dharmachakra mudra 7. Both taught on the correct view of emptiness 8. Had many great students who became great lineage holders and masters. 9. Both were unexcelled scholars 10. (Unfinished)
25 Jul 14, 12:18 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor David, what you wrote is VERY GOOD and correct. Actually there are much more than 10 similarities between Arya Nagarjuna and Lord Tsongkapa. But for blog chat purposes that would be good.
25 Jul 14, 12:20 PM

Pastor Niral: Thank you Rinpoche sharing these 10 similarities with us and well done Pastor David.
25 Jul 14, 12:20 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Niral, what work did Tsongkapa do that benefitted all sentient beings till even now?
25 Jul 14, 12:21 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Nicholas, How many primary miraculous visions did Kedrup Je have of Tsongkapa and describe how Tsongkapa looked on each vision please for the benefit of many people here to learn.
25 Jul 14, 12:23 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: I would like Pastor Niral to anwer
25 Jul 14, 12:23 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: answer
25 Jul 14, 12:23 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Lama Tsongkhapa established the Gelug monastic order
25 Jul 14, 12:23 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Jean Ai, what practices did Tsongkapa perform specifically in the cave with how many disciples and for how many years?
25 Jul 14, 12:24 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Seng Piow, where is the location of the cave Tsongkapa performed his great retreat in?
25 Jul 14, 12:24 PM

Pastor Niral: Became enlightened, showing other and guiding them on the spiritual journey to help others. His teachings, inspirations and blessings have guided many great masters and practitioners alike to aid sentient beings in all their forms up until now.
25 Jul 14, 12:26 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: The retreat cave is behind Gaden Monastery in Tibet
25 Jul 14, 12:26 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Seng Piow, why does it take so long. You went to the cave with me in Tibet!!
25 Jul 14, 12:26 PM

nicholas: How many primary miraculous visions did Kedrup Je have of Tsongkapa and describe how Tsongkapa looked on each vision please for the benefit of many people here to learn. The Five visions of Tsongkhapa 1. On an elephant Tsongkhapa was seated on a jewelled seat, upon a white elephant with six tusks. Tsongkhapa spoke to Khedrup Je and advised him to not be consumed by sadness and that if he thinks of his Guru, he could purify the negative actions he had previously committed and accumulate much merits. Tsongkhapa also advised him to read the mystical songs by Milarepa and to work on developing the teachings. 2. On a Throne held by celestial beings At another time, upon the request of Khedrup Je, Tsongkhapa appeared again, this time on a throne of gold and jewels, held by many youthful celestial beings. Tsongkhapa gave Khedrup Je teachings to clarify his questions and deepened his understanding of the doctrine. 3. As Manjushri on a white Lion The next time Khedrup Je invoked his Gu
25 Jul 14, 12:27 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Nicholas, How many primary miraculous visions did Kedrup Je have of Tsongkapa and describe how Tsongkapa looked on each vision please for the benefit of many people here to learn.
25 Jul 14, 12:27 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: Rinpoche, he entered the cave with eight disciples for four years. They did 100,000 prostrations (35 sets, one for each of thirty-five confession Buddhas). They also did 100,000 mandala offerings (18 sets), and Yamantaka self-initiations.
25 Jul 14, 12:27 PM

nicholas: 3. As Manjushri on a white Lion The next time Khedrup Je invoked his Guru, Tsongkhapa appeared – this time in the form of a 16 year old, Bodhisattva Manjushri, with a red-orange body, sitting upon a bejewelled white lion. In this form, Tsongkhapa advised Khedrup Je to spread the tantric teachings. 4. As a Yogi on a Tiger In Khedrup Je’s fourth vision of his Guru, Tsongkhapa appeared in the form of a yogi with long red hair tied with green silk at the top of his head. He was riding a ferocious tiger and his right hand carried a flaming sword like Manjushri while his left held a skull cup of nectar at his heart. Tsongkhapa advised him that whenever he thought of his Guru, he should read the treatises Tsongkhapa composed on the two stages of generation and completion of the path of the Tantras. 5. In his normal form The final time that Tsongkhapa appeared to Khedrup Je in a vision, he was in the form of an ordained monk, in the middle of a white cloud. Tsongkhapa told Khedrup Je that
25 Jul 14, 12:28 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Very good Nicholas. Another question: What was Tsongkapa’s guru that ‘taught’ the beneficial migtseyma mantra to Him?
25 Jul 14, 12:28 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Joy, Name 10 disciples of Tsongkapa that was very close and very learned?
25 Jul 14, 12:28 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Moh Mei, Name 10 famous monasteries that arose from Tsongakapa’s incredible learned disciples?
25 Jul 14, 12:29 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Seng Piow, Name ten qualities Lama Tsongakapa’s practice has different than other practices?
25 Jul 14, 12:30 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: Tsongkhapa’s holy retreat cave behind Gaden Monastery in Tibet
Travel_HolyTkpcave_01
25 Jul 14, 12:30 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Niral, name 10 benefits of engaging in Tsongkapa’s practice devotedly daily?
25 Jul 14, 12:30 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Nicholas, Please identify 10 signs on Tsongkapa’s body that represents what path to enlightenment?
25 Jul 14, 12:31 PM

Pastor David Lai: @Pastor Seng Piow – Is that Olka ?
25 Jul 14, 12:31 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Niral, what work did Tsongkapa do that benefitted all sentient beings till even now?
25 Jul 14, 12:32 PM

nicholas: Jetsun Rendawa
25 Jul 14, 12:32 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: FASTER PLEASE JOY—-You’ve been in Kechara for over 12 years..you should know a lot more dharma dear———-Joy, Name 10 disciples of Tsongkapa that was very close and very learned?
25 Jul 14, 12:33 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor David, Name ten special qualities of Lama Tsongkapa’s teachings and writings that make it superior for those who wish enlightenment in one lifetime?
25 Jul 14, 12:34 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: ten qualities Lama Tsongakapa’s practice has different than other practices: (1) it brings peacefulness and calmness to the practitioners (2) it increases wisdom, compassion and vajra power at the same time (3) it brings peace to the region of the practitioner (4) it has the power to ward off evil spirits just like Yamantaka (5) it brings on the blessings of all previous lineage gurus like Atisha, Dromtonpa etc…(to be continued)
25 Jul 14, 12:35 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Seng Piow, Name me 10 qualities of Gaden Monastery (built by Tsongkapa) that distinguish from other monasteries?
25 Jul 14, 12:35 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: any suggestions for the questions: ten qualities Lama Tsongakapa’s practice has different than other practices?
25 Jul 14, 12:36 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Seng Piow, better ask for help.. you have two sets of very good questions to finish.
25 Jul 14, 12:36 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: FASTER PLEASE JOY—-You’ve been in Kechara for over 12 years..you should know a lot more dharma dear———-Joy, Name 10 disciples of Tsongkapa that was very close and very learned?
25 Jul 14, 12:36 PM

Pastor Niral: Rinpoche, the 10 benefits of engaging in Tsongkhapa’s practice are 1. Your memory and intelligence increase. 2. You receive the blessings of Manjushri, Chenresig and Vajrapani. 3. You create a connection with Maitreya Buddha, 4. you can gain the attainments of the 7 types of wisdom. 5. you are protected from spirit harm. 6. purifies negative karma. 7. accumulates merit. 8. can reduce and cure depression. 9. pacification of obstacles to obtaining food and right livelihood. 10. healing of physical ailments.
25 Jul 14, 12:37 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Jean Ai, name me ten qualities of Gelug monk from Gaden?
25 Jul 14, 12:37 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Dear Pastor Niral, excellent answers.
25 Jul 14, 12:38 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Niral, name me ten special functions a monastery helps support a practitioner during their practice?
25 Jul 14, 12:38 PM

Pastor Niral: Rinpoche, Tsongkhapa founded the Ganden monastery which is benefiting sentient beings up until today, as Tsongkhapa’s teachings are preserved and practiced there. this has led to many great masters who have helped many.
25 Jul 14, 12:38 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Clifford, please find me 5 powerful links where Tsongakpa’s practice is shared in detail.
25 Jul 14, 12:39 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: C’mon?? Where is my US team? Why so sloooooooow? We have to go beyond asking simplistic questions after many years in the dharma? Which on of you can name five different texts composed by the great King of Dharma Tsongkapa?
25 Jul 14, 12:40 PM

Pastor David Lai: 1. Based on combined wisdom and method lineage 2. emphasis on lamrim (complete steps to enlightenment 3. based on his attainments 4. many works were direct teachings from Manjushri 5. able to gain quicker attainments 6. praises were composed of yidams based on direct pure visions 7. combines the lineage of Sakya, Kaygyu and Nyingma lineages 8. Based on a lineage on Indian treatises 9. brought many great Gelug masters to achieve great attainments 10. Completely accurate.
25 Jul 14, 12:40 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: 10 qualities of Gaden Monastery (built by Tsongkapa) that distinguish from other monasteries: (1) it is predicted by Shakyamuni Buddha (2) it is built by Tsongkhapa’s disciple who is the same mindstream as Tsongkhapa (3) it was built on a very remote hilltop unlike the rest (4) Tsonghkapa stayed there the longest and did many retreats there (5) Tsongkhapa physically went to the site when Gaden was being built…(to be continued)
25 Jul 14, 12:41 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: (1) The Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path (Lam-rim chen-mo) (2) The Great Exposition of Tantras (3) The Essence of Eloquence on the Interpretive and Definitive Teachings (4) The Praise of Relativity (5) The Clear Exposition of the Five Stages of Guhyasamāja
25 Jul 14, 12:41 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Sp, point 3 is not applicable.
25 Jul 14, 12:41 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Very very very good Pastor Jean Ai.
25 Jul 14, 12:42 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Jean Ai, name me 10 very famous lamas in our time now that are proponents of Tsongkapa’s unmistaken path?
25 Jul 14, 12:43 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: FASTER PLEASE JOY—-You’ve been in Kechara for over 12 years..you should know a lot more dharma dear———-Joy, Name 10 disciples of Tsongkapa that was very close and very learned?
25 Jul 14, 12:45 PM

Joy: 10 names of Tsongkhapa’s dsiciples are…. 1. Gyeltsap Dharma Rinchen (1364-1432), 2. Khedrub Gelek Palsang (1385-1438), 3. Gyalwa Gendun Drup (1391-1474) who became known as the first Dalai Lama, 4. Jamyang Chöje Tashi Palden (1379-1449), 5. Chamchen Chöje Shakya Yeshe, 6. Je Sherab Senge, 7. Kunga Dhöndrup (1354-1438) 8. Rongwa Jaknakpa Gendun Gyeltsen 9. Samlo Sanggye Tashi 10. Drubchen Namkha Gyeltsen
25 Jul 14, 12:45 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: (1) HH the Dalai Lama (2) HH the Gaden Tripa Kensur Lungrik Namgyal (3) Lama Zopa Rinpoche (4) Sermey Kensur Rinpoche Lobsang Tharchin (5) HH Zong Rinpoche (6) HH Trijang Rinpoche (7) HH Pabongka Rinpoche (8) HE Ling Rinpoche (9) Gelek Rinpoche (10) Lama Yeshe, now reincarnated as Lama Osel
25 Jul 14, 12:45 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Very Good Pastor Jean Ai, now give me another 20!!! fast///
25 Jul 14, 12:46 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Clifford…????????????? Hurry!!
25 Jul 14, 12:46 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Joy, name ten famous Gelug Monasteries?
25 Jul 14, 12:46 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Nicholas, name 10 famous and very beneficial Geshes?
25 Jul 14, 12:47 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Moh Mei, Name me ten special Yidams Tsongkapa encouraged in writings and teachings?
25 Jul 14, 12:48 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Faster Clifford..you get the easiest questions…..
25 Jul 14, 12:48 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Seng Piow, Name me 5 famous abbots of Drepung, Sera and Gaden Monasteries?
25 Jul 14, 12:49 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Anyone, what is the relationship with Tsonkapa and His Holiness the Dalai Lama? Same question for Panchen Rinpoche and Tsongkapa?
25 Jul 14, 12:49 PM

Pastor David Lai: Dalai Lama’s first recognized incarnation is Gyawa Gendun Drub and that is the disciple of Lama Tsongkhapa as well.
25 Jul 14, 12:50 PM

Joy: 1. Gaden Monastery 2. Drepung Monastery 3. Sera Monastery 4. Kopan Monastery 5. Namgyal Monastery 6. Samding Monastery 7. Sershul Monastery 8. Simbiling Monastery 9. Tharpa Choling Monastery 10. Drongtse Monastery
25 Jul 14, 12:50 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor David, name me ten things that connect His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Tsongkapa?
25 Jul 14, 12:51 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Name 10 famous monasteries that arose from Tsongakapa’s incredible learned disciples? 1. Drepung 2. Kopan 3. Drongtse 4. Sera 5. Tashi Lhunpo 6. Labrang 7. Kirti Gompa 8. Rato Dratsang 9. Namgyal 10. Sershul
25 Jul 14, 12:51 PM

Choongs: Both the Dalai Lama and Panchen Rinpoche and from the lineage founded by Lama Tsongkhapa.
25 Jul 14, 12:51 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Joy, Number 6 is correct?
25 Jul 14, 12:51 PM

Cliff:
1. http://www.lama-tsongkhapa.com/guru-yoga/
2. http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/tsongkhapa-prayers.html
3. http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/transcript-lama-tsongkhapa-24th-july-2008.html
4. http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/transcript-tsongkhapa-explained.html
5. http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/transcript-guru-yoga-teaching.html
25 Jul 14, 12:51 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: 10 qualities of Gaden Monastery (built by Tsongkapa) that distinguish from other monasteries: (1) it is predicted by Shakyamuni Buddha (2) it is built by Tsongkhapa’s disciple who is the same mindstream as Tsongkhapa (3) it is traditionally considered to be the seat of Gelug administrative and political power. (4) Tsonghkapa stayed there the longest and did many retreats there (5) Tsongkhapa physically went to the site when Gaden was being built (6) it houses Tsongkhapa’s holy relics (7) the throne-holder of Gelug, the Ganden Tripa, was traditionally from Ganden Monastery (8) the name Gaden means Tu****a heaven, while the other monasteries were not named after a heaven (9) Tsongkhapa actually taught in Ganden Monastery, while it was not recorded that he went to the other monasteries that he established to teach (Drepung, Sera…) (10) Tsongkhapa personally consecrated the site where Ganden Monastery was built
25 Jul 14, 12:51 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Very good Moh Mei. What about Kechara?????????????????????
25 Jul 14, 12:52 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Very good Pastor Seng Piow.
25 Jul 14, 12:52 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Yes, no.11 is Kechara Forest Retreat
25 Jul 14, 12:52 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Clifford..finally…sigh
25 Jul 14, 12:52 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: 5 famous abbots of Drepung, Sera and Gaden Monasteries: Kensur Lobsang Tharchin, Panchen Sonam Drakpa, Kensur Jampa Yeshe, Kensur Lati Rinpoche, Kyabje Zong Rinpoche
25 Jul 14, 12:53 PM

Pastor Niral: Rinpoche, here are 10 special functions of a monastery: 1. Provides shelter/housing for ordained practitioners, 2.provides food for ordained practitioners, 3. Monasteries allow the laity to create a lot of merit by supporting the sangha , 4. provides a place for the sangha to live, 5. is where the learned masters can teach the dharma. 6.is a conducive environment for prayers and retreats. 7. monasteries are places secluded from the distractions of ordinary life. 8. is a place of learning. 9. the monks/nuns can pray for and help the laity during their difficulties, 10. monasteries house the sacred images to the buddhas, that people can offerings to in order to create merit.
25 Jul 14, 12:53 PM

Joy: Rinpoche it says this: Samding monastery is said by Waddell and McGovern to belong to one of the red hat sects (Red Hat sect), but Dowman lists it as a “Geluk establishment
25 Jul 14, 12:53 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Clifford and Nicholas, name 20 parts of Tsongakapa’s body and how they relate to enlightenment. Example, the bare foot of Tsongkapa represents he no longer treads in samsara.
25 Jul 14, 12:53 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Samding is not Gelug.
25 Jul 14, 12:54 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Wrong Joy..correct it immediately
25 Jul 14, 12:54 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Very good Pastor Niral, name me ten reasons why a person should be a monk or his reasoning or motivation?
25 Jul 14, 12:55 PM

Choongs: The first Panchen Lama, Khedrub Je, is one of the heart disciples of Lama Tsongkhapa.
25 Jul 14, 12:55 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Choong, Name me ten qualities of Tsongakapa’s teachings that distinguish it from others?
25 Jul 14, 12:55 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Trivia time: Which Buddha did Tsongkapa solicit to get gold pour forth from a large stone and what did Tsongkapa do with the gold witnessed by many disciples?
25 Jul 14, 12:56 PM

sarahyap: Good afternoon Rinpochela and all
25 Jul 14, 12:56 PM

Joy: 1. Gaden Monastery 2. Drepung Monastery 3. Sera Monastery 4. Kopan Monastery 5. Namgyal Monastery 6. Tashilhunpo Monastery 7. Sershul Monastery 8. Simbiling Monastery 9. Tharpa Choling Monastery 10. Drongtse Monastery
25 Jul 14, 12:56 PM

nicholas: 1) The Face of 16-year-old boy – youthful 2) Smiling, happy – pleasant state of mind 3) Lotus seat – bodhicitta 4) Moon disc – realization of emptiness 5) Lions – protection against the four fears (demons):the demon of the delusions, the demon of contaminated aggregates, the demon of uncontrolled death, and the Devaputra demons. 6) White skin : attainment of bodhicitta 7) Tinge of red : attainment of shunyata (emptiness) 8) Three robes : holding of vows (pratimoksha, bodhisattva and tantric) 9)Vajra position: immutable, permanent stability in his realizations 10) One face : non-duality (seeing beyond the illusion of separateness of “ I” and “you”)
25 Jul 14, 12:57 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Joy, Name me 5 Gelug Nunneries and ten reasons why someone should be a nun? And Joy, you said you wish to be a nun? Can Tibetan tradition nuns smoke? When do you quit and why?
25 Jul 14, 12:58 PM

Pastor David Lai: 1. Dalai Lama is a Gelug lama 2. He teaches Lamrim that was taught by Je Tsongkhapa 3. The Dalai Lama’s previous lives’ monastery is from Drepung 4. Gendun Drub (Dalai Lama’s first Incarnation) was the nephew of Je Tsongkhapa 5. Je Tsongkhapa and the Dalai Lama wears the yellow hat. 6. Dalai Lama gives Kalachakra 7. Dalai Lama debated in monastic exams as advocated by Lama Tsongkhapa 8. Dalai Lamas based many of his teachings from Indian masters just like Tsongkhapa 9. Dalai Lama taught mind training teachings 10. Dalai Lama gave teaching on emptiness based on Je Tsongkhapa/nagarjuna special view of emptiness
25 Jul 14, 12:58 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: (11) the Panchen Lama (12) Sharpa Choje (13) Lati Rinpoche (14) Kensur Jampa Yeshe (15) Loden Sherab (16) Kaka Jetsun Dampa of Mongolia (17) Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen (18) Drayab Tokden Rinpoche (19) Kensur Rinpoche Tamding Gyatso (20) Kensur Konchok Tsering (21) HH the Gaden Tripa Rizong Rinpoche (22) Jangtse Choeje (23) Telo Tulku (24) Kensur Rinpoche Gen Mara (25) Gen Nyima (26) Rilbur Rinpoche (27) Geshe Wangyal (28) Kensur Rinpoche Dakpa Tenzin (29) Geshe Tsultrim Phuntsok, Kensur Rinpoche of Drepung Gomang (30) Khensur Rinpoche Ngawang Jorden
25 Jul 14, 12:58 PM

Cliff: 1. The Face of 16-year-old boy – youthful
2. Smiling, happy – pleasant state of mind
3. White skin : attainment of bodhicitta
6. Tinge of red : attainment of shunyata (emptiness)
4. One face : non-duality (seeing beyond the illusion of separateness of “ I” and “you”)
5. Two hands : two truths (relative and ultimate)
25 Jul 14, 12:58 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Jean Ai, excellent. Now name me 5 nuns qualities in Tsongkapa’s bio that touches you and why?
25 Jul 14, 12:59 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor David, excellent. Now name me ten qualities a disciple of Tsongkapa’s tradition should have and embody in order to receive teachings from a teacher?
25 Jul 14, 01:00 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Clifford and Nicholas—-very good so far? Anything else?
25 Jul 14, 01:00 PM

SockWan@kfr: Good afternoon Rinpoche and everyone! Greetings from KFR
25 Jul 14, 01:00 PM

nicholas: 11) Two hands : two truths (relative and ultimate) 12) Dharmachakra mudra : mudra of teaching the dharma 13) Long Life mudra : mudra of dispensing nectar of immortality 14) Flaming wisdom sword : one with Manjushri; cutting of our ignorance and delusions 15) Wisdom sword resting on a lotus : the realization of emptiness and bodhicitta (lotus) 16) Prajnaparamita scripture/Sutra of the Perfection of Wisdom: wisdom realizing emptiness 17) Yellow pandit’s hat : Gelugpa school of Buddhism 18) Two flaps : the vast (method) and profound (wisdom) lineages 19) Pointed tip : stage of no more learning (enlightenment)
25 Jul 14, 01:00 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor David, if we can just worship Avalokitesvara directly, why do it through Tsongkapa?
25 Jul 14, 01:01 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Moh Mei, what happened?
25 Jul 14, 01:01 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Moh Mei, name me ten things you like about Tsongakpa or his image? Faster???
25 Jul 14, 01:02 PM

Pastor Niral: Rinpoche, here are ten reasons why a person should be a monk/ or reasoning: 1.In order to progress on the spiritual path holding vows and therefore generating merit. 2. to purify negative karma. 3 to dedicate oneself to the dharma which is the only way out of suffering. 4.to ensure your life is 100% in service of others. 5. to become part of the sangha so you can learn the holy dharma. 6. to preserve the holy dharma so that it can be taught to future generations so that they to can benefit and rise out of suffering. 7. to be able to transform ones mind to become a better person, more kind and caring, through practicing the teachings, 8.to dedicate the merits generated to loved ones so that they have good rebirths and can be bought to the dharma. 9. to seek the only lasting and true happiness, which is complete enlightenment. 10. to be an example to others.
25 Jul 14, 01:02 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Niral dear, I didn’t forget you my little holy paneer masala!! ahahhahaha….Very good answers..anything else?
25 Jul 14, 01:02 PM

Pastor David Lai: Rinpoche, we worship Avalokiteshvara through Je Tsongkhapa because he embodies Manjushri and vajrapani as well. Therefore we get more benefits out of this practice as Manjushri gives us transcendent wisdom and Vajrapani blesses us with the power of all the Buddhas.
25 Jul 14, 01:03 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: DEBATE TIME PASTOR DAVID- It’s more beneficial to worship Tsongkapa than Avalokitesvara? Are you sure?
25 Jul 14, 01:03 PM

Pastor David Lai: Yes Rinpoche
25 Jul 14, 01:04 PM

Wei Theng: Good afternoon Rinpoche and all. Lama TKP is a three-in-one Buddha with Manjushri & Vajrapani besides Cherenzig. So, it is all in one.
25 Jul 14, 01:04 PM

Choongs: The ten teachings of Lama Tsongkhapa which distinguishes it from others are: 1. Every moment of the continuity of an object over time is fresh.
25 Jul 14, 01:04 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Name me ten special Yidams Tsongkapa encouraged in writings and teachings? 1. Chakrasamvara 2. Guhyasamaja 3. Kalachakra 4. Manjushri 5. Vajrapani 6. Sarasvati 7. Avalokiteshvara 8. Yamantaka 9. Madhyamaka 10. Hevajra
25 Jul 14, 01:04 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: DEBATE TIME PASTOR DAVID- It’s more beneficial to worship Tsongkapa than Avalokitesvara? Are you sure? *CLAP* Give me your reasonings please? I disagree.
25 Jul 14, 01:04 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: David: Avalokitesvara does not embody Vajra Pani and Manjushri? Avalokitesvara has no power and no wisdom?
25 Jul 14, 01:05 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Correction:
25 Jul 14, 01:05 PM

Choongs: 2. Lama Tsongkhapa’s teachings do not assert subsequent cognition.
25 Jul 14, 01:05 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Correction: Name me ten special Yidams Tsongkapa encouraged in writings and teachings? 1. Chakrasamvara 2. Guhyasamaja 3. Kalachakra 4. Manjushri 5. Vajrapani 6. Sarasvati 7. Avalokiteshvara 8. Yamantaka 9. Hevajra 10. Vajrayogini
25 Jul 14, 01:06 PM

Choongs: 3. Cognition may be either conceptual or nonconceptual.
25 Jul 14, 01:07 PM

sweekeong: Lama Tsongkhapa embodies Manjushri and Chenrezig is meant for us to balance practicing wisdom and compassion together, we cannot just neglect one aspect only.
25 Jul 14, 01:07 PM

sweekeong: Good afternoon Rinpoche and the US team.
25 Jul 14, 01:08 PM

Choongs: 4. Valid sensory nonconceptual cognition cognizes not just sensibilia (sights, smells, tastes, and tactile sensations), but also commonsense objects (but without mentally labeling the commonsense objects with a name or as fitting into a meaning/object category, such as “chair”)..
25 Jul 14, 01:08 PM

Choongs: 5. Valid nonconceptual cognition is a determining cognition of its involved object – it decisively determines it as “this” and “not that,” such that we can validly recollect it.
25 Jul 14, 01:09 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Well Pastor David, I just debated with you? How is Tsongkapa more ‘superior’ to Avalokitesvara?
25 Jul 14, 01:10 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Dear Choong very more? Is that all?
25 Jul 14, 01:10 PM

Wei Theng: All buddhas mind are alike. Just that specific buddha specialised in helping us on specific values. Avalokitesvara also have wisdom and power. It is just that when we do the specific one, we will have faster results.
25 Jul 14, 01:10 PM

Choongs: 6. Valid sensory nonconceptual cognition cognizes external objects. It does so through fully transparent mental aspects representing them (somewhat like mental holograms), which it produces in order to cognize them.
25 Jul 14, 01:11 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: ten qualities Lama Tsongakapa’s practice has different than other practices: (1) it brings peacefulness and calmness to the practitioners (2) it increases wisdom, compassion and spiritual power at the same time (3) it brings peace to the region of the practitioner (4) it has the power to ward off evil spirits just like Yamantaka (5) it brings on the blessings of all previous lineage gurus like Atisha, Dromtonpa etc (6) If we do the Lama Tsongkhapa guru yoga practice and train in the lam-rim by listening, reflecting, and meditating, we will not be attacked by outer, inner, secret obstacles (7) it is also a Phowa practice (8) Crops, food and livelihood will also increase (9) it will protect us from weapons harm (10) we will be protected from harms such as paralysis due to trib (pollutions)
25 Jul 14, 01:11 PM

sarahyap: Very interesting debate between Rinpoche and PDL. I think in our case wouldn’t it be more beneficial for us to worship Lama Tsongkhapa as our yidam since our lineage comes directly from Lama Tsongkhapa and we receive the teachings directly from our teachers. I think Avalokitesvara is effective too… but based on the lineage blessings, perhaps Lama Tsongkhapa is more effective in our case. Would probably be different for people of another lineage or another Guru
25 Jul 14, 01:11 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: SweeKeong, How are we neglecting the other aspects? What aspects are you speaking of? Be specific and clear please?
25 Jul 14, 01:11 PM

Leslie Leong: Good afternoon to everyone:-)
25 Jul 14, 01:11 PM

Choongs: 7. Valid conceptual cognition cognizes semitransparent generally characterized phenomena (such as the category table) and, through them, another type of generally characterized phenomenon – fully transparent conceptual representations.
25 Jul 14, 01:12 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: hi Leslie, r u back in Malaysia?
25 Jul 14, 01:12 PM

Pastor David Lai: Yes – Rinpoche just came to debate with me earlier and the gist of it is that Lama Tsongkhapa is not superior to Avalokiteshvara but the practice is due to our affinity and karma. According to the migtsema mantra, Je Tsongkhapa bestows Manjushri’s wisdom, Avalokiteshvara’s compassion and Vajrapani’s power or skillful means. In that manner, Je Tsongkhapa is superior from our side.
25 Jul 14, 01:12 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Sarah, you have a good point. So Tsongakapa only blesses ppl in our lineage?? hehe
25 Jul 14, 01:12 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: (1) humility: when Lama Tsongkhapa saw Manjushri, he didn’t believe he was attained enough to see Manjushri. He also never thought that practices were beneath him or that he knew enough, or that he had practiced enough. This inspires me because I am very impatient and it arises from the fact I always think I know better. This type of thinking causes me a lot of problems and gives me a reputation of being angersome, which I am changing. To develop humility will cut down on this type of reactive behaviour, and will create less suffering for myself and others. (2) perseverance: Lama Tsongkhapa stayed in retreat for many years. He continued despite the obstacles I presume he will have had, given Tibet’s climate – inclement weather, lack of food, cold, wind, rain, distance from his teachers, etc. This is something I would like to do in the future; Lama Tsongkhapa showed through example that retreats have results, and that obstacles are not permanent and we can overcome them if we persevere
25 Jul 14, 01:12 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: (3) guru devotion: Lama Tsongkhapa composed the praise to Rendawa who offered it back to him. His belief in his lamas was unshakeable and you can see that whatever Lama Tsongkhapa was taught, he put it into practice and he gained the results, of which his whole lifetime is testatement to. No matter how ‘great’ he became, Lama Tsongkhapa always saw himself as below his gurus. (4) renunciation: Lama Tsongkhapa lived a very simple life with few possession. This inspires me because seeing someone gain such attainments and results, and not have so much ‘stuff’ makes me realise that everything I find ‘precious’ is really my projection of what is precious and not. This thinking helps me to let go of things, not just physical objects but also situations which disturb my mind.
25 Jul 14, 01:12 PM

Pastor Jean Ai: (5) teaching the six paramitas by example: whenever someone requested a teaching from him, Lama Tsongkhapa would go above and beyond to pass on his knowledge. Out of his compassion, he was also always studying and practicing, and doing more retreats. He created Gaden out of compassion for sentient beings of his time and in the future. Teaching through actions and examples really inspires me, because it shows me that the person who is teaching is not hypocritical and not practicing double standards with themselves.
25 Jul 14, 01:12 PM

Joy: List of Gelug monasteries and nunneries in India, Nepal and Bhutan: 5 Gelug Nunneries 1. Gashar Norling Dratsang 2. Ganden Jangtse Thoesam Norling 3. Palden Drephung Tashi Gomang 4. Drepung Khemang Losel Yedwailing 5. Sera je Kham nyen 10 reasons why someone should be a nun 1. To be on the path of great enlightenment 2. To benefit others using Buddha’s methods and practices 3. To renounce from samsara 4. To find true liberation for oneself 5. To find liberation for others 5. To find true peace 7. To hold on to vows that will prevent us from going to the three lower realms 8. To have a meaning life 9. To awaken from samsara’s nightmare 10. To become a Buddha Yes I aspire to become a nun. No in the Tibetan tradition nuns do not “smoke” and yes I should quit because I do not wish to waste this precious human life, whatever life I have left and I wish to make full use of it and become a nun! Thank you Rinpoche
25 Jul 14, 01:12 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Excellent Jean Ai!!!
25 Jul 14, 01:13 PM

Pastor Shin: Good evening Rinpoche and USA Pastors & team. Exciting blog quiz!
25 Jul 14, 01:13 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Very good Joy, when do you stop smoking exactly?
25 Jul 14, 01:13 PM

Pastor Niral: Hello Pastor Shin!
25 Jul 14, 01:13 PM

Choongs: 8. Valid cognition, both conceptual and nonconceptual, can explicitly apprehend its involved object by giving rise to a mental aspect representing it, and, simultaneously, implicitly apprehend another involved object, without producing a mental aspect representing it.
25 Jul 14, 01:13 PM

Pastor David Lai: *s******s* @Joy They have nicotine patches at the pharmacy…
25 Jul 14, 01:14 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Niral, name me ten systems of practice or ways of practice the Tibetans adopted from the incredible rich Buddhist tradition of India?
25 Jul 14, 01:14 PM

Choongs: 9. Among negation phenomena (dgag-pa, negatingly known phenomena), individually characterized object exclusions of something else (don rang-mtshan-gyi gzhan-sel, object exclusions) are nonstatic phenomena.
25 Jul 14, 01:14 PM

GimLee@KFR: Hello room, hello Rinpoche… wow… I have a lot of reading to do with all the excellent answers here…
25 Jul 14, 01:14 PM

Casteven Lim (KH JB): Good afternoon Rinpoche amd room…
25 Jul 14, 01:14 PM

Joy: I will work towards quitting by the end of this week…
25 Jul 14, 01:15 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Niral, name me ten great Indian masters?
25 Jul 14, 01:15 PM

Leslie Leong: Hi pastor yes i am back in malaysia. Thank you for asking:-) have logged in to try to learn more.
25 Jul 14, 01:15 PM

Choongs: 10. Cognition of an object may be either manifest or subliminal. With manifest cognition, the consciousness of the manifest cognition gives rise to a mental aspect representing an object and both the manifest consciousness and the person (gang-zag) cognizes it. With subliminal cognition, the consciousness of the subliminal cognition gives rise to a mental aspect representing an object, but only the subliminal consciousness cognizes it, not the person.
25 Jul 14, 01:15 PM

Pastor Shin: Welcome to exciting blog quiz Leslie :) A lot of very good answers here to read through 😉
25 Jul 14, 01:15 PM

sarahyap: Rinpochela, I’m very sure Lama Tsongkhapa blesses all, but affinity and connection is too very important. I think for example, the importance of affinity is like in Lama Tsongkhapa story as well, that Lama Tsongkhapa have affinity with Manjushri and thus Manjushri appear to Lama Tsongkhapa and not any other Buddha like Tara. So based on blessings, Lama Tsongkhapa gives to all, but on our side, as the receiver, it depends if we are able to receive it or not.
25 Jul 14, 01:15 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Name me ten things you like about Tsongakpa or his image? 1. Peaceful and serene look 2. Embody three values – compassion, wisdom and skillful means 3. Took his first set of vows (lay) at the age of 3 4. Established a systematic and disciplined monastic order 5. His legacy – Gaden monastery 6. Technically composed his own praise/mantra the Migtsema 7. He travelled to study under many teachers 8. Strong renunciation since young and kept his vows strong 9. Began to teach in his 20’s 10. Did extensive retreat
25 Jul 14, 01:16 PM

Pastor David Lai: s******s – s-n-i-g-g-e-r
25 Jul 14, 01:16 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Choong , Great , great , great answers. I am very happy to see your answers and I accept. Now name me ten great Indian Masters that influenced Tsongkapa’s teachings, practice and writings?
25 Jul 14, 01:16 PM

Pastor Moh Mei: Hi Pastor Shin
25 Jul 14, 01:16 PM

Pastor David Lai: Harrow Pastor Shin 😉
25 Jul 14, 01:17 PM

Choongs: Thank you Rinpoche.
25 Jul 14, 01:17 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor Moh Mei, How many vows does a nun have?? What are the primary vows of a nun that are most important that cannot be broken or they are disrobed?
25 Jul 14, 01:17 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: Great website dedicated to Lama Tsongkhapa’s info, biography, practice, resources, pictures, videos, links…http://www.lama-tsongkhapa.com/
25 Jul 14, 01:18 PM

Pastor Seng Piow: Great website dedicated to Lama Tsongkhapa’s info, biography, practice, resources, pictures, videos, links… http://www.lama-tsongkhapa.com/
25 Jul 14, 01:18 PM

Joy: When I read more about Lama Tsongkhapa and how he has studied from all different schools of Buddhism and having so many different Gurus from different schools… it seems like the Gelug tradition is synthesis of all traditions/sects/schools of Vajrayana Buddhism :) Makes me feel even more blessed to be in the Gelug tradition. Instead of people always talking and saying that Gelugs are sectarian, in reality, it is actually like a United Colours of Vajrayana Buddhism lol. Just some thoughts.
25 Jul 14, 01:18 PM

Pastor David Lai: Wow Choong – You sound like scholar monk about to sit of a Geshe exam.
25 Jul 14, 01:19 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: hahahahahahah….Sarah, Tara did appear to Tsongkapa and regularly. Tara, Atisha, 84 Mahasiddhas, the Indian masters called the “6 Oranaments and 4 Supremes’, Vajra Yogini, Kalacakra, Maitreya, Yamantaka, 35 Confessional Buddhas all appeared to Tsongkapa regularly..now how? affinity what?
25 Jul 14, 01:19 PM

Choongs: Pastor David, if only I could commit them to memory. lol
25 Jul 14, 01:20 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Joy, as an aspiring nun, name me 20 things you need to abandon that you have been doing? That has hurt, irritated, annoyed and disturbed many around you?
25 Jul 14, 01:20 PM

kb: Hi Rinpoche Tashi dalek
25 Jul 14, 01:21 PM

Su Ming: Nice Choong. I am getting more people to come into the blog chat now as there are so much information to absorb.
25 Jul 14, 01:21 PM

gopinath: Good Afternoon Dearest RInpoche My Humblest Obesances to you and all here
25 Jul 14, 01:21 PM

Pastor Niral: Rinpoche, here are some of the great indian masters: 1. Jowo Atisha, 2. Guru Padmasambhava, 3. Nagarjuna, 4. Asanga, 5. Vasubanda 6. Dharmarak****a, 7. Aryasura, 8. Santarak****a, 9. Shantideva, 10. Aryadeva, 11. Chandrakirti
25 Jul 14, 01:21 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor David, copy and paste what Choong copied and paste and start memorizing daily. You have a great memory. Choong is a great researcher.
25 Jul 14, 01:21 PM

sweekeong: Why we need all the three aspects of Lama Tsongkhapa? We may wish to help others, the compassion in action aspect, but we are unable to help them ineffectively because of our lack of understanding of Dharma and wisdom from our side. We may study wishing to gain wisdom but without practicing, the compassion aspect, our study would not progress because we don’t practice what we study. If we always have a lot of fear, and using of learning wrong teachings as excuse not to learn, and using of helping others making the situation becoming worst as stopping to help others, we need the aspect of courage, otherwise we would never begin to gain compassion and wisdom.
25 Jul 14, 01:22 PM

kb: Soo fun
25 Jul 14, 01:22 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Dear Pastor Niral aka Panner Masala, VERY VERY VERY VERY GOOD. Out of all the Indian masters, name 5 that definitively affected Tsongakpa and his practice/writings very much?
25 Jul 14, 01:22 PM

Pastor David Lai: Yes Rinpoche…
25 Jul 14, 01:22 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Pastor David, which monastery (ies) in India did the King of Dharma Tsongkapa base his Gaden Monastery on please and source please?
25 Jul 14, 01:23 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Clifford and Nicholas, Name me the various mantras of Tsongkapa? How ‘many’ mantras are there?
25 Jul 14, 01:23 PM

gopinath: RInpoche can I try It was Saint Atisa one of them
25 Jul 14, 01:24 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Kb, How does Tsongakpa’s mantra bless us? Name me three ways clearly.
25 Jul 14, 01:24 PM

Casteven Lim (KH JB): Wow, thanks Rinpoche and US team that have a Live Pop Quiz… I m reading from the beginning, the information make me get to know more Lord Tsongkhapa lineage
25 Jul 14, 01:24 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Gopinath, very good. Name me five and quote source.. we need accuracy…thank you.
25 Jul 14, 01:24 PM

gopinath: sure rinpoche
25 Jul 14, 01:24 PM

Tsem Rinpoche: Dear dear dear Casteven, so nice to see you and so glad you are here. You are a very good and sincere student and very steady. Those of you who are serious of Tsongkapa’s practice should go to the beginning of our quiz and copy and save everything to learn and understand. There is so much information. I made blog quiz here to benefit ppl and so we can discuss dharma. I have the USA team here tonight to discuss and they are knowledgeable, hardworking and sincere.
25 Jul 14, 01:26 PM

gopinath: rinpoche there are migstema , Tsongkapas Short mantra and Tsongkapas Heart mantra
25 Jul 14, 01:26 PM

Pastor David Lai: It is nalanda monastery rinpoche…. looking for the source now
25 Jul 14, 01:26 PM

CONTINUE TO PART TWO

This article was posted in Articles. Both comments and trackbacks are closed.

Comments are closed.

BACK TO TOP
Top